How does the Coronavirus spread from one person to another?

Passengers wearing masks in hopes of preventing the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19)
Passengers wearing masks in hopes of preventing the spread of the Coronavirus (COVID-19)


How does the Coronavirus spread from one person to another?

Welcome to this article We will discover how to transmit and control infection. I have to think everyone is familiar with the experience of suffering from infectious diseases - this is a disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria or viruses - even if it is just colds. Most of us will suffer a variety of injuries during our lives, and some are more serious than others.

In the United Kingdom and the United States, common infectious diseases include colds, flu, stomach upset, chickenpox, and impetigo, among others. The most serious, but less common, infectious diseases include pneumonia, meningitis, HIV / AIDS, tuberculosis, and, more recently, the Corna virus. Some common diseases are now very rare in this country, thanks to vaccination programs. This includes one-time common childhood diseases, such as polio, mumps, measles, diphtheria, and whooping cough.

In this article, you will first consider the wide types of pathogens that can cause disease until you understand well the type of bacteria, viruses, and parasites, with examples of diseases caused by different types of pathogens for these microorganisms. You will then look at how diseases are transmitted between people and from sources in the environment, such as food, water, or insects.

These days we take the ability to treat many bacterial infections with antibiotics as a given. However, bacteria develop resistance to antibiotics and this leads to infections caused by resistant bacteria, such as MRSA, that are difficult to treat. You will look at some of the methods that are developed to address this problem.

Next, you'll look at how the body's immune system helps fight disease. The immune system is a wonderful, complex system that includes a variety of cells and molecules that interact to fight bacteria and viruses. You will explore how this occurs during infection, how immunity works, and how the body acquires resistance to infectious microorganisms after encountering them once.

Finally, this knowledge will be used to show why immunization is an important development responsible for reducing disease occurrence, or even eliminating deadly diseases from the planet.

What causes infectious diseases?

Microorganisms cause infectious diseases which are parasites, viruses, and bacteria. In this article, we will learn about the main types that cause these diseases for humans around the world, especially common infectious diseases.

Common infectious diseases today include:

  • urinary tract infections
  • gastrointestinal infections
  • common colds
  • influenza
  • chest infections (such as pneumonia)
  • skin infections (such as impetigo)
  • And recently Coronavirus.

Certain types of bacteria or viruses cause these diseases. Some microorganisms do not cause disease but are classified as pathogens.

Infectious diseases that are found in all types of the world are:

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus (nCoV) is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. You can also read how the virus is spreading around the world.
Source: WOH
(MERS-CoV)
Coronaviruses morphology. Glossy balls are made in a circle, in red when viewed with an electron microscope.

Influenza is an infectious disease and occurs as a result of the influenza virus. Symptoms are runny nose, high body temperature, sore throat, joint pain, and fever. It is also a seasonal disease that increases in winter, decreases in summer, and affects children and adults. You can read more about this virus at Wikipedia

Measles is a highly infectious disease caused by the measles virus, which spreads quickly through sneezing or coughing. Its symptoms are characterized by the presence of a red rash on the face and spread to the rest of the body after five days of the injury. Other symptoms include pneumonia and diarrhea.

Impetigo is superficial dermatitis caused by Staphylococcus aureus, a highly infectious disease that includes symptoms of yellow scales on the face, sores, and pimples.

Cholera is a disease caused by a human infection in the small intestine due to his infection with Vibrio bacteria. Cholera is found in contaminated water and waste. Among its symptoms is severe watery diarrhea that lasts for a few days, which leads to severe dehydration and body imbalance.

Malaria is an infectious disease that spreads to humans and animals through mosquitoes so that parasites are placed on the body and the life cycle of parasites begins. Its symptoms include fever, headache, and vomiting. This disease is widespread due to the bad climate and waste all over the world.

life cycle of the malaria
An illustration to show the life cycle of the malaria parasite

Now that we have some knowledge about viruses, bacteria, and parasites, we'll talk about the difference between bacteria and viruses.

What are the differences between bacteria and viruses?

The internal composition of bacteria
The internal composition of bacteria

Bacteria

Bacteria are single-celled organisms. They can grow and multiply if they're given the necessary nutrients and conditions. Animal cells, including human cells, contain several membranous compartments called organelles for different processes, including the nucleus that contains our DNA. Bacteria also contain DNA but do not contain any subcellular compartments. Like our cells, the material inside the cell is kept in by a lipid membrane that contains various proteins. Bacteria also have cell walls, which human cells don't have.

Most species of bacteria are not harmful to humans, and many are beneficial, perhaps even essential, to normal digestion. However, many species can cause infection and illness in humans. Bacteria multiply by dividing, and given the right conditions, can double in number very quickly, for example, every 20 minutes. Of course, they need to have nutrients to grow and multiply, so they can rarely grow so quickly for long.

A common type of bacterium is Escherichia coli, E. Coli, some strains of which can cause a serious type of food poisoning. However, nonpathogenic strains are extremely common and most of us have E. Coli living inside our guts from before we were even an hour old. Some bacteria, called aerobic bacteria, need oxygen to grow. But others, called anaerobic bacteria, can or must grow in the absence of oxygen. Some bacteria can form spores that lie dormant for long periods in the soil. An example is Clostridium tetani, the bacteria responsible for the potentially fatal disease tetanus. This is a spore-forming anaerobic bacteria that can get into the body through a puncture wound, such as that caused by a nail or a thorn.

The Black Death was a plague that spread throughout parts of Asia and Europe during the 14th century and killed one-third of the population of England. The cause of this illness, characterized by black lumps called buboes in the armpits and groin, was a bacterium called Yersinia pestis, which was spread by fleas carried by rats. Although this disease is now rare, it does still occur in rural areas in some countries. In 2015, for example, there were 320 cases reported worldwide, with 77 deaths, including 15 cases and four deaths in the USA.

This picture shows a simplified view of the viruses
This picture shows a simplified view of the viruses

Viruses

Viruses, on the other hand, are not cells and so are not alive. They may be able to survive outside the cells, or even outside the body, but they must get into cells to replicate or reproduce. If we want to grow viruses in the laboratory, we have to grow them inside cells. Viruses consist of a protein coat, sometimes with a membrane, that surrounds the genetic material. For some viruses, this genetic material is DNA. But some contain a single strand of genetic material called RNA instead. Unlike bacteria, viruses cannot make the proteins they need to multiply.

The virus multiplies inside the cell
The diagram below shows how a virus replicates inside a cell. It must enter the cell
in order to use the cellular machinery to reproduce its own proteins and genetic material.

Bacteria infect your body, but most bacteria do not enter the cells that make up your body. Viruses, on the other hand, must enter cells and use the machinery inside the cell to make copies of themselves. These then burst out of the cell to infect other cells or spread outside the body. Diseases caused by viruses include influenza, measles, hepatitis B, and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome, AIDS. In each case, the disease is caused by a specific type of virus. Some of these diseases are short-lived, such as influenza and measles. Others can be chronic, which means that they last a long time.

For example, the hepatitis B virus infects liver cells and causes disease Hepatitis, which is the inflammation of the liver. This virus can remain in cells for a long time and can cause changes in the cellular DNA that give rise to liver cancer years later. AIDS is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, HIV, which infects a type of white blood cell that is needed by the immune system to help us defend ourselves against infection.

As these cells are killed by the virus, patients become susceptible to infections that most people can fight off. If the disease is not treated with drugs, that block viral replication, patients often die of other infections, such as pneumonia, because their immune system is being so severely damaged.


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